A

АНАРХИЯ И АНАРХИЗМ - ЕДИНЫЙ ФОРУМ АНАРХИСТОВ

ANARHIA.ORG
Текущее время: 22 сен 2017, 09:08

Часовой пояс: UTC + 3 часа




   [ Сообщений: 17 ]    
Автор Сообщение
 Заголовок сообщения: 7th November the Day of Great Russian Revolution
СообщениеДобавлено: 07 ноя 2008, 18:38 
Не в сети

Зарегистрирован: 13 дек 2007, 01:04
Сообщения: 6430
Откуда: emptiness
At the start of 1917 the country was ripe for revolution — growing rapidly, creating expanded social opportunities but also great uncertainty. Poor villagers more and more often migrated between agrarian and industrial work environments, and many relocated entirely, creating a growing urban labor force. A middle class of white-collar employees, businessmen, and professionals (the latter group comprising doctors, lawyers, teachers, journalists, engineers, etc.) was on the rise. Even nobles had to find new ways to subsist in this changing economy, and contemporaries spoke of new classes forming (proletarians and capitalists, for example), although these classes were also divided along crisscrossing lines of status.

It was becoming harder to speak of clearly-defined social groups or boundaries. Not only were groups fractured in various ways, their defining boundaries were also increasingly blurred by migrating peasants, worker intellectuals, gentry professionals, and the like. There was a general sense that the texture of people's lives was being transformed by a spreading commercial culture which remade the surfaces of material life (buildings, store fronts, advertisements, fashion, clocks and machines) and nurtured new objects of desire.[2]

By 1917, the growth of political consciousness, the impact of revolutionary ideas, and the weak and inefficient system of government (which had been debilitated further by its participation in World War I), should have convinced the emperor, Nicholas II, to take the necessary steps towards reform. In January 1917, in fact, Sir George Buchanan, the British Ambassador in Russia, advised the emperor to "break down the barrier that separates you from your people to regain their confidence." In response to his advice, Nicholas effectively disowned Buchanan.

Many of the people of Russia resented the autocracy of Tsar Nicholas II and the corrupt and anachronistic elements in his government. He was seen as being out of touch with the needs and aspirations of the Russian people, the vast majority of whom were victims of the wretched socio-economic conditions which prevailed. Socially, Tsarist Russia stood well behind the rest of Europe in its industry and farming, resulting in few opportunities for fair advancement on the part of peasants and industrial workers. Economically, widespread inflation and food shortages in Russia contributed to the revolution. Militarily, inadequate supplies, logistics, and weaponry led to heavy losses that the Russians suffered during World War I; this further strengthened Russia's view of Nicholas II as weak and unfit to rule. Ultimately, these factors, coupled with the development of revolutionary ideas and movements (particularly during the years following the 1905 Bloody Sunday Massacre), led to the Russian Revolution.

Many workers acquired a sense of self-respect and confidence, heightening expectations and desires. Living in cities, workers encountered material goods such as they had never seen while in the village. Most important, living in cities, they were exposed to new ideas about the social and political order.[3]

The social causes of the Russian Revolution mainly came from centuries of oppression of the lower classes by the Tsarist regime, and Nicholas's failures in World War I. While rural agrarian peasants had been emancipated from serfdom in 1861, they still resented paying redemption payments to the state, and demanded communal tender of the land they worked. The problem was further compounded by the failure of Sergei Witte's land reforms of the early 1900s. Increasing peasant disturbances and sometimes full revolts occurred, with the goal of securing ownership of the land they worked. Russia consisted mainly of poor farming peasants, with 1.5% of the population owning 25% of the land.[citation needed]

The rapid industrialization of Russia also resulted in urban overcrowding and poor conditions for urban industrial workers (as mentioned above). Between 1890 and 1910, the population of the capital, Saint Petersburg, swelled from 1,033,600 to 1,905,600, with Moscow experiencing similar growth. This created a new 'proletariat' which, due to being crowded together in the cities, was much more likely to protest and go on strike than the peasantry had been in previous times. In one 1904 survey, it was found that an average of sixteen people shared each apartment in Saint Petersburg, with six people per room. There was also no running water, and piles of human waste were a threat to the health of the workers. The poor conditions only aggravated the situation, with the number of strikes and incidents of public disorder rapidly increasing in the years shortly before World War I.

World War I only added to the chaos. Conscription swept up the unwilling in all parts of Russia. The vast demand for factory production of war supplies and workers caused many more labor riots and strikes. Conscription stripped skilled workers from the cities, who had to be replaced with unskilled peasants, and then, when famine began to hit due to the poor railway system, workers abandoned the cities in droves to look for food. Finally, the soldiers themselves, who suffered from a lack of equipment and protection from the elements, began to turn against the Tsar. This was mainly because, as the war progressed, many of the officers who were loyal to the Tsar were killed, and were replaced by discontented conscripts from the major cities, who had little loyalty to the Tsar.


Political issues
Many subjects of the crown had reason to be dissatisfied with the existing autocracy. Nicholas II was a deeply conservative ruler and maintained a strict authoritarian system. Individuals and society in general were expected to show self-restraint, devotion to community, deference to the social hierarchy, and a sense of duty to country. Religious faith helped bind all of these tenets together as a source of comfort and reassurance in the face of difficult conditions and as a means of political authority exercised through the clergy. Perhaps more than any other modern monarch, Nicholas II attached his fate and the future of his dynasty to the notion of the ruler as a saintly and infallible father to his people. This idealized vision of the Romanov monarchy blinded him to the actual state of his country. With a firm belief that his power to rule was granted by Divine Right, Nicholas assumed that the Russian people were devoted to him with unquestioning loyalty. This ironclad belief rendered Nicholas unwilling to allow the progressive reforms that might have alleviated the suffering of the Russian people. Even after the 1905 revolution spurred the Tsar to decree limited civil rights and democratic representation, he worked to limit even these liberties in order to preserve the ultimate authority of the crown.[4]

Despite constant oppression, the desire of the people for democratic participation in government was strong. Since the Age of Enlightenment, Russian intellectuals had promoted Enlightenment ideals such as the dignity of the individual and of the rectitude of democratic representation. These ideals were championed most vociferously by Russia’s liberals, although populists, Marxists, and anarchists also claimed to support democratic reforms. A growing opposition movement had begun to challenge the Romanov monarchy openly well before the turmoil of World War I. Dissatisfaction with Russian autocracy culminated in the huge national upheaval that followed the Bloody Sunday massacre of January 1905, in which hundreds of unarmed protesters were shot by the Tsar's troops. Workers responded to the massacre with a crippling general strike, forcing Nicholas to put forth the October Manifesto which established a democraticly elected parliament (the State Duma). The Tsar undermined this promise of reform but a year later with Article 87 of the 1906 Fundamental State Laws, and subsequently dismissed the first two Dumas when they proved uncooperative. Unfulfilled hopes of democracy fueled revolutionary ideas and violent outbursts targeted at the monarchy.

One of the Tsar’s principal rationales for risking war in 1914 was his desire to restore the prestige that Russia had lost amid the debacles of the Russo-Japanese war. Nicholas also sought to foster a greater sense of national unity with a war against a common and ancient enemy. The Russian Empire was an agglomeration of diverse ethnicities that had shown significant signs of disunity in the years before the First World War. Nicholas believed in part that the shared peril and tribulation of a foreign war would mitigate the social unrest over the persistent issues of poverty, inequality, and inhuman working conditions. Instead of restoring Russia's political and military standing, World War I led to the horrifying slaughter of Russian troops and military defeats that undermined both the monarchy and society in general to the point of collapse.

_________________
Arbeit macht frei


Вернуться к началу
 Профиль  
 
 
 Заголовок сообщения:
СообщениеДобавлено: 07 ноя 2008, 18:41 
Не в сети

Зарегистрирован: 13 дек 2007, 01:04
Сообщения: 6430
Откуда: emptiness
1855 Start of reign of Tsar Alexander II.
1861 Emancipation of the serfs.
1874–81 Growing anti-government terrorist movement and government reaction.
1881 Alexander II assassinated by revolutionaries; succeeded by Alexander III.
1883 First Russian Marxist group formed.
1894 Start of reign of Nicholas II.
1898 First Congress of Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP).
1900 Foundation of Socialist Revolutionary Party (SR).
1903 Second Congress of Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. Beginning of split between Bolsheviks and Mensheviks.
1904–5 Russo-Japanese War; Russia loses war.
1905 Russian Revolution of 1905.
January: Bloody Sunday in Saint Petersburg.
June: Battleship Potemkin uprising at Odessa on the Black Sea (see movie The Battleship Potemkin).
October: general strike, Saint Petersburg Soviet formed; October Manifesto: Imperial agreement on elections to the State Duma.

1906 First State Duma. Prime Minister: Petr Stolypin. Agrarian reforms begin.
1907 Second State Duma, February–June.
1907 Third State Duma, until 1912.
1911 Stolypin assassinated.
1912 Fourth State Duma, until 1917. Bolshevik/Menshevik split final.
1914 Germany declares war on Russia.
1915 Serious defeats, Nicholas II declares himself Commander in Chief.
1916 Food and fuel shortages and high prices. Progressive Bloc formed.
1917 Strikes, mutinies, street demonstrations lead to the fall of autocracy.

_________________
Arbeit macht frei


Вернуться к началу
 Профиль  
 
 
 Заголовок сообщения:
СообщениеДобавлено: 07 ноя 2008, 18:50 
Не в сети

Зарегистрирован: 13 дек 2007, 01:04
Сообщения: 6430
Откуда: emptiness
Timeline 1914-1916

Basement 1914

June - July: General Strikes in Saint Petersburg.

19 July: Germany declares war on Russia, causing a brief sense of patriotic union amongst the Russian nation and a downturn in striking.

30 July: The All Russian Zemstvo Union for the Relief of Sick and Wounded Soldiers is created with Lvov as president.

August - November: Russia suffers heavy defeats and a large shortage of supplies, including food and munitions, but holds onto Austrian Galicia.

18 August: Saint Petersburg is renamed Petrograd as 'Germanic' names are changed to sound more Russian, and hence more patriotic.

5 November: Bolshevik members of the Duma are arrested; they are later tried and exiled to Siberia.

1915

19 February: Great Britain and France accept Russia's claims to Istanbul and other Turkish lands.

5 June: Strikers shot at in Kostromá; casualties.

9 July: The Great Retreat begins, as Russian forces pull back out of Galicia and Russian Poland into Russia proper.

9 August: The Duma's bourgeois parties form the 'Progressive bloc' to push for better government and reform; includes the Kadets, Octobrist groups and Nationalists.

10 August: Strikers shot at in Ivánovo-Voznesénsk; casualties.

17 August-19th: Strikers in Petrograd protest at the deaths in Ivánovo-Voznesénsk.

23 August: Reacting to war failures and a hostile Duma, the Tsar takes over as Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, prorogues the Duma and moves to military headquarters at Mogilev. Central government begins to seize up.

1916

January - December: Despite successes in the Brusilov offensive, the Russian war effort is still characterised by shortages, poor command, death and desertion. Away from the front, the conflict causes starvation, inflation and a torrent of refugees. Both soldiers and civilians blame the incompetence of the Tsar and his government.

6 February: Duma reconvened.

29 February: After a month of strikes at the Putílov Factory, the government conscripts the workers and takes charge of production. Protest strikes follow.

20 June: Duma prorogued.

October: Troops from 181st Regiment help striking Russkii Renault workers fight against the Police.

1 November: Miliukov gives his 'Is this stupidity or treason?' speech in reconvened Duma.

17 December/18th: Rasputin is killed by Prince Yusupov.

30 December: The Tsar is warned that his army won't support him against a revolution.

_________________
Arbeit macht frei


Вернуться к началу
 Профиль  
 
 
 Заголовок сообщения:
СообщениеДобавлено: 07 ноя 2008, 18:52 
Не в сети

Зарегистрирован: 13 дек 2007, 01:04
Сообщения: 6430
Откуда: emptiness
October Revolution


The October Revolution was led by Vladimir Lenin and was based upon Lenin's writing on the ideas of Karl Marx, a political ideology often known as Marxism-Leninism. It marked the beginning of the spread of communism in the twentieth century. It was far less sporadic than the revolution of February and came about as the result of deliberate planning and coordinated activity to that end. Though Lenin was the leader of the Bolshevik Party, it has been argued that since Lenin wasn't present during the actual takeover of the Winter Palace, it was really Trotsky's organization and direction that led the revolution, spurred by the motivation Lenin instigated within his party.[citation needed] Critics on the Right have long argued that the financial and logistical assistance of German intelligence via their key agent, Alexander Parvus was a key component as well, though historians are divided, for the evidence is sparse.

On 7 November 1917, Bolshevik leader Vladimir I. Lenin led his leftist revolutionaries in a revolt against the ineffective Provisional Government (Russia was still using the Julian Calendar at the time, so period references show an 25 October date). The October revolution ended the phase of the revolution instigated in February, replacing Russia's short-lived provisional parliamentary government with government by soviets, local councils elected by bodies of workers and peasants. Liberal and monarchist forces, loosely organized into the White Army, immediately went to war against the Bolsheviks' Red Army.

_________________
Arbeit macht frei


Вернуться к началу
 Профиль  
 
 
 Заголовок сообщения:
СообщениеДобавлено: 07 ноя 2008, 18:56 
Не в сети
Аватара пользователя

Зарегистрирован: 18 июл 2008, 01:16
Сообщения: 1180
А по русски?

_________________
http://darknesshurch.spybb.ru/


Вернуться к началу
 Профиль  
 
 
 Заголовок сообщения:
СообщениеДобавлено: 07 ноя 2008, 19:06 
Не в сети

Зарегистрирован: 13 дек 2007, 01:04
Сообщения: 6430
Откуда: emptiness
Изображение

_________________
Arbeit macht frei


Вернуться к началу
 Профиль  
 
 
 Заголовок сообщения:
СообщениеДобавлено: 07 ноя 2008, 20:41 
Не в сети

Зарегистрирован: 13 дек 2007, 01:04
Сообщения: 6430
Откуда: emptiness
Изображение

All the Soviets won’t budge the troops
Unless the musicians play.
Drag the pianos into the street,
Let drums or pianos beat,
Let tumult be,
Let thunder!

Wipe the old from the heart who dares.
The streets shall be our brushes,
Our palettes shall be the squares.
The thousand-pages Book of Time Revolution’s songs shall know;
Into the streets, Futurists,
Drummers and poets, go!

The city pillaged,
Plundered, ransacked,
Clogging its belly with cash,
But at the benches skinny and hunchbacked
Stood the working class….
But we’ll give birth,
We’ll send, someday shall rise,
A man…

Workers arise-for the last fight resolved!
Straighten your backs-unbend your knees!
Proletarian army, there’s no time to pause.
Long live the Revolution, joyful and swift to be!
This is the greatest of all great wars ever known to history!

( Mayakovsky )

_________________
Arbeit macht frei


Вернуться к началу
 Профиль  
 
 
 Заголовок сообщения:
СообщениеДобавлено: 07 ноя 2008, 20:41 
Не в сети

Зарегистрирован: 13 дек 2007, 01:04
Сообщения: 6430
Откуда: emptiness
Изображение

_________________
Arbeit macht frei


Вернуться к началу
 Профиль  
 
 
 Заголовок сообщения:
СообщениеДобавлено: 07 ноя 2008, 21:24 
Не в сети
Аватара пользователя

Зарегистрирован: 05 мар 2008, 22:45
Сообщения: 2215
Откуда: Москва
x` pf gjt,tym&

_________________
Изображение


Вернуться к началу
 Профиль  
 
 
 Заголовок сообщения:
СообщениеДобавлено: 07 ноя 2008, 23:44 
Не в сети
Аватара пользователя

Зарегистрирован: 03 янв 2008, 08:24
Сообщения: 11435
Откуда: Третья планета от Солнца.
Да, я тоже это стихотворение маяковского не узнал...

_________________
Осторожно! Опасная зона! Работа мозга! http://lj.rossia.org/users/ash_rabbi


Вернуться к началу
 Профиль  
 
 
 Заголовок сообщения:
СообщениеДобавлено: 08 ноя 2008, 01:43 
Не в сети

Зарегистрирован: 13 дек 2007, 01:04
Сообщения: 6430
Откуда: emptiness
The wind is high, soft snow flits down.
Twelve men are on their way through town.
Black rifle swings. Light here and there.
Lights all around. Lights everywhere.
Keep in revolutionary step! Make no mistake,
The restless enemy keeps wide awake.
Comrade, your gun! Ger rid of fear
Let’s shoot up holy Russia here !

…So they march with sovereign tread;
In their rear, the hungry cur,
And with blood-red flag ahead,
Unseen, since the blizzard’s there,
Unharmed as the bullets fly,
Stepping gently, blizzard-high,
Sprinkling pearly trails of snow,
With garlands of white roses spliced-
Up in front is Jesus Christ.

(A. Blok )


Изображение

_________________
Arbeit macht frei


Вернуться к началу
 Профиль  
 
 
 Заголовок сообщения:
СообщениеДобавлено: 08 ноя 2008, 10:43 
Не в сети
Аватара пользователя

Зарегистрирован: 07 ноя 2008, 14:56
Сообщения: 77
Откуда: За горизонтом
А писать русские стихи по-английски - это разве так круто? По-моему - так полный отстой!

_________________
Одно полезное слово, услышав которое становятся спокойными, лучше тысячи речей, составленных из бесполезных слов. (с) Будда
http://lj.rossia.org/users/nndf/


Вернуться к началу
 Профиль  
 
 
 Заголовок сообщения:
СообщениеДобавлено: 08 ноя 2008, 13:36 
Не в сети
Аватара пользователя

Зарегистрирован: 03 янв 2008, 08:24
Сообщения: 11435
Откуда: Третья планета от Солнца.
Ты не понимаешь. Тут фишка в том, что это просто феерически отстойный перевод. Блок и сам по себе унылое говно, а в таком переводе и вовсе трэш %)

_________________
Осторожно! Опасная зона! Работа мозга! http://lj.rossia.org/users/ash_rabbi


Вернуться к началу
 Профиль  
 
 
 Заголовок сообщения:
СообщениеДобавлено: 09 ноя 2008, 12:11 
Не в сети
Аватара пользователя

Зарегистрирован: 07 ноя 2008, 14:56
Сообщения: 77
Откуда: За горизонтом
Я понимаю и говорю, что отстой. Не трэш, а именно отстой.

_________________
Одно полезное слово, услышав которое становятся спокойными, лучше тысячи речей, составленных из бесполезных слов. (с) Будда
http://lj.rossia.org/users/nndf/


Вернуться к началу
 Профиль  
 
 
 Заголовок сообщения:
СообщениеДобавлено: 09 ноя 2008, 13:43 
Не в сети

Зарегистрирован: 05 янв 2008, 14:54
Сообщения: 2171
Вот чего нашёл :
http://ziza.ru/2008/11/07/nacionalnyjj_prazdnik_3_foto.html

_________________
Хостинг фотографий
[img=http://dl.hostingfailov.com/preview/8e84596dbc.jpg]


Вернуться к началу
 Профиль  
 
 
 Заголовок сообщения:
СообщениеДобавлено: 09 ноя 2008, 15:14 
Не в сети
Аватара пользователя

Зарегистрирован: 03 янв 2008, 08:24
Сообщения: 11435
Откуда: Третья планета от Солнца.
'nndf писал(а):
Я понимаю и говорю, что отстой. Не трэш, а именно отстой.

Не, это именно что трэш - то есть, такой отстойный отстой, что это даже круто. Такой фейл, что даже вин %)

_________________
Осторожно! Опасная зона! Работа мозга! http://lj.rossia.org/users/ash_rabbi


Вернуться к началу
 Профиль  
 
 
 Заголовок сообщения:
СообщениеДобавлено: 10 ноя 2008, 16:11 
Не в сети
Аватара пользователя

Зарегистрирован: 07 ноя 2008, 14:56
Сообщения: 77
Откуда: За горизонтом
Цитата:
...такой отстойный отстой, что это даже круто.


Круто сказано.

_________________
Одно полезное слово, услышав которое становятся спокойными, лучше тысячи речей, составленных из бесполезных слов. (с) Будда
http://lj.rossia.org/users/nndf/


Вернуться к началу
 Профиль  
 
 
Показать сообщения за:  Поле сортировки  
   [ Сообщений: 17 ] 
   { SIMILAR_TOPICS }   Автор   Комментарии   Просмотры   Последнее сообщение 
В этой теме нет новых непрочитанных сообщений. документальный фильм "Revolution OS"

в форуме Видео

Goren

7

2988

25 июн 2008, 18:02

Goren Перейти к последнему сообщению

В этой теме нет новых непрочитанных сообщений. Революция, которой не было / The Revolution That Wasn't

в форуме Видео

Droni

1

962

03 окт 2010, 10:33

band Перейти к последнему сообщению

В этой теме нет новых непрочитанных сообщений. Living Utopia (The Anarchists and the Spanish Revolution)

в форуме Видео

YesMan

5

1268

03 июл 2011, 10:48

YesMan Перейти к последнему сообщению

В этой теме нет новых непрочитанных сообщений. cyber-revolution - помощь в создании сайта

в форуме Интернет

cyber

0

858

03 янв 2013, 02:08

cyber Перейти к последнему сообщению

В этой теме нет новых непрочитанных сообщений. The first days of the Spanish Revolution, Durruti & the Durr

в форуме История

Кащей_Бессмертный

3

1290

17 апр 2010, 02:15

АNARCHY®WORLD Перейти к последнему сообщению


Часовой пояс: UTC + 3 часа


Кто сейчас на конференции

Сейчас этот форум просматривают: Yahoo [Bot] и гости: 1


Вы не можете начинать темы
Вы не можете отвечать на сообщения
Вы не можете редактировать свои сообщения
Вы не можете удалять свои сообщения

Перейти:  
Создано на основе phpBB® Forum Software © phpBB Group
Русская поддержка phpBB